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中国下一个港湾:豪华游艇

发布时间:2012-12-05
    不断降低的成本和持续增长的个人财富催生了中国大陆游艇制造业的繁荣。
    林先生完成他的第一单豪华游轮生意只花了90分钟。顾客登上他们企业在海南岛停靠的油轮后,就打电话给银行支付了35%的定金。林先生说,顾客是福建省厦门瀚盛游艇有限企业的销售人员,“我甚至没有他的名片,他只是给了我他的手机号码,然后打电话给银行就交了预付款”。
    中国的经济增长给新兴的游艇行业带来前所未有的发展机遇。大约六家中国游艇制造商现在已经直接与国际成熟的游艇商展开竞争,诸如阿兹姆游艇,法拉帝游艇,公主国际游艇,以及布伦瑞克。亚太船业杂志的主编赖安斯威夫特说:“这是中国本土产业自信的体现。”
    根据胡润的数据。中国的百万富翁已经超过44.7万。但是只有100艘超过60英尺的游艇被中国人购买。相比较之下,2006年美国60英尺以上游艇拥有量为7000艘。
    7月内,珠海的游艇制造商太阳鸟向米兰的造船厂出口了两艘游艇。太阳鸟有超过400个工作人员,每年能够生产20艘游艇。这个规模在游艇业几乎无足轻重。菲利普.贝托尼是意大利佩鲁吉亚的造船设计师,太阳鸟出口到意大利的游艇就由他设计。“对中国工人来说,造第一艘船比较难。意大利工人35000个小时可以完成的工作,中国工人需要10万个小时。但是当生产第二艘游艇的时候,他们的效率会提高很多。”
    太阳鸟的工人尽管经验不足,但是他们以超额加班来弥补这个缺陷。太阳鸟每一个新进工人的月薪至少有2000元人民币,电工、木匠的工资更是3倍于这个数字。与国外竞争对手相比,中国游艇商的成本至少还可以低30%。中国商家还具备另外一个优势,那就是中国政府对进口游艇征收43%的税费。
    对中国市场来说,豪华游艇的配套设施与国外市场完全不一样。一个重要的原因是,游艇拥有者需要取得政府许可才能在不同的省份之间飞行,而且沿海区域是禁止飞行的。相反,在中国游艇内,他们通常会装饰麻将室、卡拉OK厅,以及很大的厨房。“欧洲人会花10天甚至两个星期来完成一次航程”,英国造船商圣斯克亚洲区总经理戈登说:“中国人则喜欢每星期花几小时在船上款待自己的客户、朋友和家人。他们在游艇上的活动与市中心的卡拉OK厅并没有太大区别。
    为了提升工艺,中国的游艇制造商选择雇佣外国设计师或者与国外竞争者合作。瀚盛游艇与英国设计师比尔.迪克森合作,太阳鸟一些游艇的设计则由西雅图的设计师布莱恩霍兰德操刀完成。去年青岛立行车船实业企业以2020万美金(13亿元人民币)的代价收购了一家意大利游艇制造厂。立行的总经理侯杰说:“这次收购的主要目的是与国际市场接轨。”侯杰说,立行今年的销售额将达到154亿美金,约为人民币10亿元。
    哈德森游艇是厦门一个集团企业的分支,这家集团的业务从棒球棒到床垫都有所涉及,2005年开始制造游艇。现在,它给英国的珍珠动力游艇生产了75英尺长的游艇。美国新港的炮艇商是这家企业的顾客之一。哈德森生产的三艘炮艇已经通过该炮艇商被贬卖到德国、美国、中国台湾。炮艇的创始人彼得约翰斯通说:“仍然有不少人对中国制造有偏见,反对者总是存在的,”他说:“但是,中国制造的游艇从质量和细节来看并不逊于世界顶尖的生产商。” 
                                      China's Next Port of Call: Luxury Yachts
    Lower costs and rising wealth fuel growth at mainland boat builders
    Caprice Lam took 90 minutes to close his first luxury-yacht sale. That's all the time it took for the customer to step aboard his company's 62-foot, 13 million yuan ($2 million) vessel on China's tropical Hainan Island and order his bank to wire a 35 percent deposit. "I don't even have his card," says Lam, a salesman at Xiamen Hansheng Yacht Building of Fujian province. "He just gave me his cell phone number, called his bank, and paid the deposit."
    China's economic growth has resulted in flush times for the country's emerging yacht industry. A half dozen or so Chinese yacht builders are now competing bow to bow against established Western builders like Azimut Yachts, Ferretti Yachts, Princess Yachts International, and Brunswick (BC) for wealthy consumers on the mainland. "This is a sign of China's own industrial confidence," says Ryan Swift, editor-in-chief of Asia-Pacific Boating magazine.
    While the number of millionaires in China is estimated at more than 447,000, there are only about 100 Chinese-owned yachts longer than 60 feet, according to Rupert Hoogewerf, who compiles the Hurun Report, which tracks China's wealthy. In the U.S., there were more than 7,000 that size in 2006.
    In Zhuhai, Sunbird Yacht is building two vessels for export to a Milan-based shipyard in July. Sunbird's staff of 400 workers is capable of producing only about 20 boats per year, making it a small fry by industry standards. Large-yacht building is new to China and workers lack the skills and experience of their Western counterparts, says Filippo Bertoni, an Italian naval architect from Perugia, Italy, who designed the boats that Sunbird is exporting. "That first boat was like a school boat for them," says Bertoni, who expects the vessel will require 100,000 man hours to make in China, a task that would take an Italian crew 35,000 hours. "For the next boats, they will be faster."
    What Sunbird's workers lack in speed, they make up in affordability. Sunbird pays unskilled workers at least 2,000 yuan ($306) per month, rising to three times that for electricians and carpenters, says Charles Luo, vice-president for international business. Although that's more than double the average wage in Guangdong province, it still allows the company to build boats for about 30 percent less than foreign rivals. Another edge for mainland yacht companies: Beijing slaps a 43 percent duty on imported boats.
    The largest Chinese-built yacht is a 144-foot steel-and-aluminum-hull vessel still under construction at Kingship Marine's shipyard in Zhongshan, Guangdong province, that carries a price tag of nearly $27 million, says Diana Liang, director at Kingship.
    Luxury-yacht builders outfit boats differently for the Chinese market. One reason: Owners need special permits to travel on their yachts between provinces and are restricted to China's coastal waters. For many local buyers, that means it's out with big sun decks and water-sports add-ons popular in the U.S., and in with mahjong salons, karaoke machines, and large galleys. "Europeans go on [a] cruise for 10 days or 2 weeks," says Gordon Hui, managing director of Sunseeker Asia, which sells the Poole (U.K.)-built boats. "The Chinese use the boat for a few hours per weekend to entertain clients, family, and friends. They use boats no differently than they would a karaoke lounge in the city."
    To up their game, China's yacht manufacturers are hiring foreign designers or simply acquiring overseas rivals. Hansheng works with U.K.-based design expert Bill Dixon, and some of Sunbird's boats have been crafted by Seattle-based designer Brian Holland. Qingdao Nauticstar Marine paid $20.2 million to buy Italian yacht builder Cantieri Navali di Lavagna last year. "The purpose of the acquisition was to help us tap the global market," says Hou Jie, Nauticstar's general manager. Nauticstar built its first boat in 2003; today it produces craft ranging from a 6.5-foot rubber dinghy costing $3,078 to a 40-foot catamaran complete with four queen-size beds costing $2.1 million. Sales this year should top $154 million, says Hou.
    Hudson Yacht & Marine, part of a Xiamen-based group of companies that builds everything from Louisville Slugger baseball bats to medical mattresses, in 2005 began making inflatable craft. Today it builds boats up to 75 feet long for brands including Britain's Pearl Motor Yachts. One customer—Newport, R.I.-based Gunboat—has sold three 60-foot sailing yachts made by Hudson to buyers in Germany, the U.S., and Taiwan. Gunboat's founder, Peter Johnstone, says there's still an anti-"made-in-China" bias to overcome. "There will be naysayers," he says, "however ... the quality and detail is on par with any of the top yards in the world."
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